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Thursday, July 9, 2009

Financial Management MBA Assignments for SMU MB0029

Question - What are the causes and remedies for over capitalization and under capitalization?

Answer – Overcapitalization

A company is said to be overcapitalized, when its total capital (both equity and debt) exceeds the true value of its assets. It is wrong to identify overcapitalization with exess of capital because most of the overcapitalized firms suffer from the problems of liquidity.

Causes of overcapitalization:

1. Decline in the earnings of the company.
2. Fall in dividend rates.
3. Market value of company’s share falls, and company loses investors confidence.
4. Company may collapse at any time because of anemic financial conditions – it will affect its employees, society, consumers and its shareholders.

Remedies for overcapitalization

Restructuring the firm is to be executed avoid the situation of company becoming sick.

It involves

1. Reduction of debt burden
2. Negotiation with term lending institutions for reduction in interest obligation.
3. Redemption of preference share through a scheme of capital reduction.
4. Reducing the face value and paid-up value of equity shares.
5. Initiating merger with well managed profit making companies interested in talking over ailing company.


Under-capitalization is just the reverse of over-capitalization. A company is considered to be under-capitalized when its actual capitalization is lower than its proper capitalization as warranted by its earning capacity.

Causes of under- capitalization

1. Under estimation of future earnings of the time of promotion of the company.
2. Abnormal increase in earnings from new economic and business environment.
3. Under estimation of total funds requirements.
4. Maintaining very high efficiency through improved means of production of goods or rendering of services.
5. Companies which are set up during recession start making higher earning capacity as soon as the recession is over.
6. Use of low capitalized rate.
7. Companies which follow conservative dividend policy will achieve a process of gradually rising profits.
8. Purchase of assets at exceptionally low prices during recession.

Remedies of undercapitalization

1. Splitting up at the shares – This will reduce the dividend per share
2. Issue of bonus share: this will reduce both the dividend per share and earning per share.
3. Both over-capitalization and under – capitalization are detrimental to the interests of the society.

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