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Tuesday, June 22, 2010

“What are 4GLs explain in brief.” The question has been taken from MI0024 SMU MBA of Software Engineering. It is the question of Information System (IS) for Sikkim Manipal University MBA MI0024. I have already shared software process and different models also for MI0024 assignment.

For small applications, it may be possible to move directly from the requirements gathering step to implementation using a nonprocedural fourth generation language (4GL), or a model composed of a network of graphical icons.

However, for larger efforts, it is necessary to develop a design strategy for the system, even if a 4GL is to be used. The use of 4GT without design (for large projects) will cause the same difficulties (poor quality, poor maintainability, poor customer acceptance) that have been encountered when developing software using conventional approaches.

Implementation using a 4GL enables the software developer to represent desired results in a manner that leads to automatic generation of code to create those results. Obviously, a data structure with relevant information must exist, and be readily accessible by the 4GL. To transform a 4GT implementation into a product, the developer must conduct through testing, develop meaningful documentation, and perform all other solution integration activities that are required in other software engineering paradigms. In addition, the 4GT developed software must be built in a manner that enables maintenance to be performed expeditiously.

Like all software engineering paradigms, the 4GT model has advantages and disadvantages. Proponents claim dramatic reduction in software development time and greatly improved productivity for people who build software. Opponents claim that current 4GT tools are not all that much easier to use than programming languages, that the resultant sources code produced by such tools is ‘inefficient,” and that the maintainability of large software systems developed using 4GT is open to question. 4GT begins with a requirements gathering step.

Sunday, June 6, 2010

“Explain the software process and different models involved in this process.” This is MI0024 SMU MBA question assignment. The question has been taken from Software Engineering for Information System (IS) of SMU MBA MI0024. I have decided to write the assignment question after Branch and Bound Technique to solve an I.P.P. problem.

In the recent years, there has been a significant emphasis on “process maturity.” The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) has developed a comprehensive model predicated on a set of software engineering capabilities that should be present as organizations reach different levels of process maturity. To determine an organization’s current state of process maturity, the SEI uses an assessment that results in a five point grading scheme.

To solve actual problems is an industry setting, a software engineer or a team of engineers must incorporate a development strategy that encompasses the process, methods, and tools layers. All software development can be characterized as a problem solving loop in which four distinct stages are encountered: status quo, problem definition, technical development and solution integration.

This problem solving loop applies to software engineering work at many different levels of resolution. It can be used at the macro level when the entire application is considered, at a mid-level when program components are being engineered and even at the line of code level.

Software Process Models:

The Linear Sequential Model: Sometimes called the classic life cycle or the waterfall model, the linear sequential model suggest a systematic, sequential approach to software development that begins at the system level and progress through analysis, design, coding, testing and support.

The Prototyping Model: Often, a customer defines a set of general objectives for software but does not identify detailed input, processing, or output requirements.

The Incremental Model: The incremental model combines elements of the linear sequential model with the iterative philosophy of prototyping.

The Spiral Model: The spiral model, originally proposed by Boehm [BOE88], is an evolutionary software process model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the linear sequential model.

The RAD Model: Rapid application development (RAD) is an incremental software development process model that emphasizes an extremely short development cycle.

The intent of software engineering is to provide a framework for building software with higher quality. Software engineering is a discipline that integrates process, methods and tools for the development of computer software.

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