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Sunday, July 18, 2010

“Earned value is a measure of progress. Explain this statement.” This is the question of this SMU MBA assignment for Software Engineering (MI0024). Students of Sikkim Manipal University with Information System (IS) specialty MBA MI0024 can write the assignment. There are some other Software Engineering assignments also of SMU MBA - COCOMOL model, Linear Sequential Model and 4GL Technologies.

Earned value analysis provides the project manager with an indication of progress, but an assessment of the information provided is somewhat subjective. It is reasonable to ask whether there is a quantitative technique for assessing progress as the software team progresses through the work tasks allocated to the project schedule. In fact, a technique for performing quantitative analysis of progress does exist. It is called earned value analysis (EVA).

The earned value system provides a common value scale for every (software project) task, regardless of the type of work being performed. The total hours to do the whole project are estimated, and every task is given an earned value based on its estimated percentage of the total.

Stated even more simply, earned value is a measure of progress. It enables us to assess the “percent of completeness” of a project using quantitative analysis rather than rely on a gut feeling. In fact, Fleming and Koppleman argue that earned value analysis “provides accurate and reliable readings of performance from as early as 15% into the project”.

To determine the earned value, the following steps are performed:

1. The budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) is determined for each work task represented in the schedule. The work of each software engineering task is planned.

2. The BCWS values for all work tasks are summed to derive the budget at completion,

BAC. Hence, BAC=_(BCWSk) for all tasks k

3. Next, the value for budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP) is computed. The value for BCWP is the sum of the BCWS values for all work tasks that have actually been completed by a point in time on the project schedule.

Wednesday, July 14, 2010

“Explain COCOMOL model.” You have to solve the question of SMU MBA MI0024 for Software Engineering. MBA students of Information System (IS) of Sikkim Manipal University MI0024 can write the assignment. I already have shared some other MI0024 MBA assignments also such as - Linear Sequential Model and 4GL Technologies.

In this classic book on “software engineering economics,” Barry Boehm [BOE81] introduced a hierarchy of software estimation models bearing the name COCOMO, for constructive cost model. The original COCOMO model became one of the most widely used and discussed software cost estimation models in the industry. It has evolved into a more comprehensive estimation model, called COCOMO II [BOE96, BOE00]. Like its predecessor, COCOMO II is actually a hierarchy of estimation models that address that following areas:

Application composition model: Used during the early stages of software engineering, when prototyping of user interfaces, consideration of software and system interaction, assessment of performance, and evaluation of technology maturity are paramount.

Early design stage model: Used once requirements have been stabilized and basic software architecture has been established.

Post-architecture-stage model: Used during the construction of the software.

The Software Project Plan is a relatively brief document that is addressed to a diverse audience. It must (1) communicate scope and resources to software management, technical staff, and the customer; (2) define risks and suggest risk aversion techniques; (3) define cost and schedule for management review; (4) provide an overall approach to software development for all people associated with the project; and (5) outline how quality will be ensured and change will be managed.

This is, the project team revisits the plan repeatedly – updating risks, estimates, schedules and related information – as the project proceeds and more is learned.

Similarly, the degree of detail contained within the schedule section may vary with the audience and formality of the plan. It is the important to note that the Software Project Plan is not a static document.

Tuesday, July 6, 2010

“Explain Linear Sequential Model.” It is the question of SMU MBA MI0024 for Software Engineering. Students of Information System (IS) of Sikkim Manipal University MBA MI0024 can write the assignment. There are some other MI0024 MBA assignments also such as - software process and different models and 4GL Technologies.

The linear sequential model suggests a systematic, sequential approach to software development. It begins at the system level and progress through analysis, design, coding, testing and support. Modeled after a conventional engineering cycle, the linear sequential model encompasses the following activities:

System/information engineering and modeling: Because software is always part of a larger system (or business), work begins by establishing requirements for all system elements and then allocating some subset of these requirements to software. This system view is essential when software must interact with other elements such as hardware, people and databases.

Software requirements analysis: The requirements gathering process is intensified and focused specifically on software. To understand the nature of the program(s) to be built, the software engineer (“analyst”) must understand the information domain for the software, as well as required function, behavior, performance and interface.

Design: Software design is actually a multistep process that focuses on four distinct attributes of a program: data structure, software architecture, interface representations and procedural detail. The design process translates requirements into a representation of the software that can be assessed for quality before coding begins.

Code generation: The design must be translated into a machine-readable form. The code generation step performs this task.

Testing: Once the code has been generated, program testing begins. The testing process focuses on the logical internals of the software, ensuring that all statements have been tested and on the functional externals, that is, conducting tests to uncover errors and ensure that defined input will produce actual results that agree with the required results.

Support: Software will undoubtedly undergo change after it is delivered to the customer. Change will occur because errors have been encountered, because the software must be adapted to accommodate changes in its external environment or because the customer requires functional or performance enhancements.

The linear sequential model requires his and has difficult accommodating the natural uncertainty that exists at the beginning of many projects.

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