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Monday, May 23, 2011

The solved assignment is written for – “write a note on classical era for evolution of Organization behaviour” question. It is the solved assignment for Management Process and Organization Behavior (MB0038) SMU MBA. You can see factors influencing perception assignment also in this category.

Classical conditioning is one of the simplest forms of learning, yet it has a powerful effect on our attitudes, likes and dislikes, and emotional responses. We have all learned to respond in specific ways to a variety of words and symbols. Our lives are profoundly influenced by associations we learn through classical conditioning.

Ivan Pavlov’s research on the conditioned reflex in dogs revealed much of what we know about the principles of classical conditioning.

Classical conditioning is modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits an unconditioned behavior. Ian Pavlov, a Russian psychologist developed classical conditioning theory based on his experiments to teach a dog to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. When Pavlov presented meat to the dog, he noticed a great deal of salvation. But, when merely bell was rung, no salivation was noticed in the dog. What Pavlov did next was to link the meat and the ringing of the bell.

Classical conditioning introduces a simple cause-and-effect relationship between one stimulus and response. It also makes the response reflective or involuntary after the stimulus-response relationship has been established.

This leaves no ground for making choices, which factor differentiates human beings from dogs. Under certain situations, classical conditioning does explain human behavior. For example, if a student is always reprimanded by his Principle when he is summoned to the principal’s office, he may become nervous whenever asked to come to the principal’s office because of this association.

Classical conditioning has real limitation in its acceptability to human behavior in organizations. An alternate approach to classical conditioning was proposed by B.F Skinner, known as Operant Conditioning, in order to explain the more complex behavior of human, especially in an organizational setting.

Sunday, May 22, 2011

It is the solved assignment of “What are the factors influencing perception?” question. The assignment question is written for SMU MBA MB0038 assignment. We already have shared some solved assignments for MB0038 - Classification of Personality Types of Myers and Briggs and Methods of Shaping Behavior.

Factors Influencing Perception:

A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside:

1) In the perceiver
2) In the object or target being perceived or
3) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made

1. Characteristics of the perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are:

a) Attitudes: The perceiver’s attitudes affect perception. This attitude will doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews.

b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed.

c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions.

d) Self-Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceiver’s self-concept. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person.

e) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. Because our individual interest differs considerably, what one person notices in a situation can differ from what others perceive.

f) Cognitive Structure: Cognitive Structure, an individual’s pattern of thinking, also affects perception. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits, such as height, weight, and appearances more readily.

g) Expectations: Finally, expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalkind and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal

Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately.

One’s own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others.

People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favourable aspects of other people.

Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill.

These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in the environmental situation.

Friday, May 6, 2011

You need to “explain the classification of personality types given by Myers –Briggs” for SMU MBA MB0038 assignment. We already have discussed about methods of shaping behavior and a note on the managerial roles from MB0038.

Mayers-Briggs developed the Mayers-Briggs type indicator, a commercially available questionnaire, which is widely used in business and training, etc. and which provides information and exercises for better understanding one’s own personality type and others with who the individual interacts and works.

Keirsey has renamed and re-conceptualized the Jungian types, but they relate very closely to the Jungian types. Keirsey refers to “temperaments” rather than personality.

Underlying all these typologies are four personality traits (functions):

1. Extroversion (E) --- Introversion (l)

Do you recharge your energy via external contact & activity (Extroversion) or spending time in your inner space (Introversion)?

2. Intuition (N) – Sensing (S)

Do you rely on your inner voice (Intuition) or observation (Sensing)?

3. Thinking (T) – Feeling (F)

When making decisions, what do you rely most on? Your thoughts or your fellings?

4. Judgment (J) – Perception (P)

Do you tend to set schedules and organize your life (Judgment), or do you tend to leave the options open and see what happens (Perception)?

Using the letters above, it is possible to have a unique 4 letter code to indicate each of the 16 Jungian personality types, e.g., I am an INTJ.

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