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Thursday, June 2, 2011

The solved assignment is being prepared – “Explain the process of negotiation” question. This is the assignment of SMU MBA MB0038. You can read about groupthink and classical era for evolution also.

Negotiation is the process through which the parties to a conflict define what they are willing to give and accept in an exchange. Negotiation permeates the interactions of almost everyone in groups and organizations. If the conflict is complex, the negotiation process may incorporate different strategies for different issues: avoiding some, compromising on others, and so on.

Steps in Negotiation:

Preparation: Preparation for negotiations should begin long before the formal negotiation begins. Each party gathers information about the other side – its history, likely behavior, previous interaction and previous agreements reached by the parties.

Evaluation of Alternatives: The two sides attempt to identify the bargaining range. The bargainers determine the alternatives acceptable to them and also identify their best alternative if a negotiated settlement is not reached.

Identifying Interests: Negotiators act to satisfy their own interests which may include substantive, relationship, personal or organizational ones. The person or group must assess the other party’s interests and then decide how to respond to those interests in their offers.

Making Trade-offs and Creating Joint Gains: Bargainers use trade-offs to satisfy their own and other’s interests. Either position would meet the interest of maintaining a certain standard of living.

Negotiating Approaches:

Distributive Bargaining: Distributive bargaining is an approach in which the goals of one party are in direct conflict with the goals of the other party.

Integrative Negotiation:

Under this approach to negotiation, the parties’ goals are not seen as mutually exclusive; the focus is on making it possible for both sides to achieve their objectives.

Third-Party Negotiations:

When individuals and group reach a stalemate and are unable to resolve their differences through direct negotiations, especially when a conflict is emotionally charged, they may turn to a third party to help them find a solution.

Negotiation is also one of the tactics. It is the process through which the parties to a conflict define what they are willing to give and accept in an exchange.

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